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Piping abbreviations

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Industrial Suppliers


Safety First

Foreword to Safety


Safe use of Nitrogen


What is LEL / UEL and PID?


Job Safety Analysis

ATmosphere EXplosibles

What is ATEX?


Safe working on scaffolds


12 Golden Safety Rules


8 Golden Safety Rules


Safety Field Guide


Piping Coordination Systems

Dimensioning from Ref. Points

Plot Plan

Piping Arrangement

Piping and Instrument Diagrams

Piping Iso's

Engineering Standards

Foreword - Engineering Standards

Piping Material Specs (15 pages)

Piping Specifications

Foreword - Piping Specifications

Piping Specification

Piping Flexibility

Thermal Expansion of Pipes

Heat Tracing

Effective Steam Tracing

Thermal Insulation

Types and Materials

Space Requirements

Insulation of Piping

Fabrication of Pipe systems

Pre-Fabrication of Pipe Spools

Field fabrication of Pipe systems

Tolerances for Pipe Fabrication

Nozzle length and Spacing

Effective Steam Tracing

Unequal Wall Thickness

Pipe Line Spacing Chart

Drawing Symbols

Symbols for P&ID's

Symbols for Isometric drawings

Symbols Heat Exchangers (P&ID)

Symbols for Piping Arrangements



Corrosion general

Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI)

Microbiologically Induced Corrosion (MIC)

Corrosion Allowance

Materials International Standards

Comparing Steel Standards

Materials Chemical Elements

List of Chemical Elements

Materials Chemical Requirements

Carbon Alloy Steels

Austenitic Stainless Steels


Fireproofing in Petro-chemie


American Society of Mechanical Engineers

Who is ASME?

ASME B31.3 - Process Piping

Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code

Standards defined on this site

American Society for Testing and Materials

Who is ASTM?

Pipes, Tubes & Fittings Standards

Castings & Forgings Standards

Plate, Sheet, Strip & Wire (Std)

Standards defined on this site

Collaboration between ASME and ASTM



ANSI-ASME are the same?
(10 Pages)

Manufacturers Standardization Society

Who is MSS?

American Petroleum Institute

Who is API?

Valve standards of API

Pressure Equipment Directive

What is it?


Definition & Details of Pipes

Definition of Pipe

NPS and Schedule

Types, Lengths and Ends

Pipe Manufacturing Processes

Marking Standards for Pipes

Materials acc. to ASTM

Press/Temp Ratings

Seamless Pipes

Dimensions of Pipes acc. to ASME B36.10/19

NPS 1/2 - NPS 2

NPS 2½ - NPS 5

NPS 6 - NPS 14

NPS 16 - NPS 24

NPS 26 - NPS 48

Weights of Pipes acc. to ASME B36.10/19

NPS 1/2 - NPS 2

NPS 2½ - NPS 5

NPS 6 - NPS 12

NPS 14 - NPS 18

NPS 20 - NPS 24

Dimensions & Weights of Pipes acc. to ASTM A53

NPS 1/8 - NPS 1½

NPS 2 - NPS 3½

NPS 4 - NPS 6

NPS 8 - NPS 12

NPS 14 - NPS 18

NPS 20 - NPS 26


Definition & Details of Flanges

Flanges General

Pressure Class

Flanges types

Bolt Hole Orientation

Flanges Faces

Flange Face Finish

Gaskets and Bolts

Torque Tightening

Bolt Tensioning

Bolting Torque Tables

Marking Standards Flanges

Materials acc. to ASTM

Special Flanges

Orifice Flanges

Spectacle Blind-Spades-Spacers

LWN-Weldo-Exp-Red Flanges

Dimensions & Tolerances

Welding Neck Flanges

Slip On flanges

Socket Weld Flanges

Lap Joint Flanges

- Stub Ends (MSS SP-43)

- Stub Ends (ASME B16.9)

Threaded Flanges

Blind Flanges

Spectacle Blinds

Spades and Ring Spacers

Bleed - Drip Ring

Dim Weld Neck & Blind Flanges acc. to ASME B16.47

NPS 26 - NPS 60 Series A

NPS 26 - NPS 60 Series B

Dimensions & Tolerances (inches)

Weld Neck Flanges

Dimensions Orifice Flanges RF

WN Class 300 NPS 1 - NPS 24

WN Class 600 NPS 1 - NPS 24

WN Class 900 NPS 1 - NPS 24

WN Class 1500 NPS 1 - NPS 24

WN Class 2500 NPS 1 - NPS 12

Dimensions Orifice Flanges RTJ

WN Class 600 NPS 1 - NPS 24

WN Class 900 NPS 1 - NPS 24

WN Class 1500 NPS 1 - NPS 24

WN Class 2500 NPS 1 - NPS 12

Ring-Joint Facings - ASME B16.5

Pressure Class 150

Pressure Class 300

Pressure Class 400

Pressure Class 600

Pressure Class 900

Pressure Class 1500

Pressure Class 2500

API Specification 6A

6B Flanges 2000 PSI

6B Flanges 3000 PSI

6B Flanges 5000 PSI

6BX Flanges...20000 PSI


Types of Buttweld Fittings

Buttweld Fittings General

Elbows 45°-180°

Tees Straight-Reducing


Induction Bending

Marking Standards BW Fittings

Materials acc. to ASTM

Manufacturing Butt Weld Fittings

Extrusion method Tees

Mandrel method Elbows

Deep Drawing method Caps

Dimensions Buttweld Fittings

Elbows 45°/90° LR

Elbows 90° SR

Elbows 180° LR/SR

Elbows Reducing 90° LR

End Caps

Reducers Concentric-Eccentric

Tees Straight

Tees Reducing

Dimensions Stub Ends

Stub Ends (MSS SP-43)

Stub Ends (ASME B16.9)

Weights Buttweld Fittings

Elbows LR, SR, 3D, RED

Reducers Concentric/Eccentric

Tees Straight/Reducing

Threaded Fittings general

Definition and Details

Dimensions Threaded Fittings

Elbows 90° / 45°

Tees and Crosses

Street Elbows

Full and Half-Couplings


Hex Head Bushings


Socket Weld Fittings general

Definition and Details

Dimensions Socket Weld Fittings

Elbows 90° / 45°

Tees and Crosses

Couplings and Half-Couplings

Reducing Couplings


Fittings for Branch Connections

O'let Branch Connections

Dimensions Weldolets®

NPS 1/2 - 24 STD Size on Size

NPS 1/2 - 24 XS Size on Size

NPS 3/4 - 20 STD Reducing

NPS 3/4 - 20 XS Reducing

Dimensions Sockolets®

Class 3000 & 6000 Reducing

Class 3000 Size on Size

Dimensions Thredolets®

Class 3000 & 6000 Reducing

Class 3000 Size on Size

Welding req O-Let Fittings

Welding O-Let Fittings


Introduction to Valves

Valves General

API 600 Trim No

Types of Valves

Gate Valve

Globe Valve

Ball Valve

Plug Valve

Butterfly Valve

Check Valve

Bellows sealed Valve

Pressure seal Valve

Breather Valve


ARV or ARC Valve

Block and Bleed

Introduction to Block & Bleed

True Meaning of DB&B

Process Safety

Pressure Relief Valve

Rupture Disks

Control Valve

Valve Materials

ASTM Casting Materials

Valve Leakage

Testing Standards API, ANSI, MSS, ISO

Valve Interlock

Valve Interlock System

Face to Face dimensions flanged valves

Pressure Class 150 - 2500

Face to Face dimensions Wafer Check Valves



Dual-Plate Lug

Dual-Plate Double-flanged

Glossary of Valve Terms

Valve Terms Glossary

Car Seal - CSO/CSC

What is a Valve Car Seal?


Valve Whisperer

Construction & Principle

Valve Actuators

Solenoid Valves

Large images of Valves

Rising Stem Gate Valve

Non Rising Stem Gate Valve

Details Globe Valve(1)

Details Globe Valve(2)

Reduced & Full port Ball Valve

Cross Section Ball Valve

Cross Section Plug Valve

Cross Section Butterfly Valve

Cross Section Swing Check Valve

Cross Section Piston Check Valve

ORBIT Rising Stem Ball Valve


Bolts and Nuts

Stud Bolts General

Calculating Stud Bolt Lengths

Dimensions of Stud Bolts

ASME B16.5 Class 150

ASME B16.5 Class 300

ASME B16.5 Class 400

ASME B16.5 Class 600

ASME B16.5 Class 900

ASME B16.5 Class 1500

ASME B16.5 Class 2500

Heavy Hex Nuts (ASME)

Dimensions ASME B18.2.2

Hex Nuts (DIN & ISO)

Dimensions Hex Nuts

Flange Bolt-Up

Bolting Torque Tables


Gaskets general

Flange Gaskets general

Gaskets dimensions NPS 1/2-24 ASME B16.20 B16.21 B16.5

Non-Metallic Flat Gaskets

Grooved Gaskets (Camprofile)

Metal-Jacketed Gaskets

Gaskets dimensions NPS 26-60 ASME B16.20 B16.21 B16.47

Non-Metallic Gaskets Series A

Non-Metallic Gaskets Series B

Gaskets dimensions NPS 1/2-24 ASME B16.20 B16.21 B16.5

Spiral Wound Gaskets class 150

Spiral Wound Gaskets Class 300

Spiral Wound Gaskets Class 400

Spiral Wound Gaskets Class 600

Spiral Wound Gaskets Class 900

Spiral Wound Gaskets Class 1500

Spiral Wound Gaskets Class 2500

Dimensions Spiral Wound Gaskets

Flanges DIN EN 1092-1

RTJ gasket dimensions & tolerances ASME B16.20

Type R ASME B16.5/B16.47

Gaskets dimensions NPS 26-60 ASME B16.20 B16.21 B16.47

SPW Gaskets Series A Class 150

SPW Gaskets Series A Class 300

SPW Gaskets Series A Class 400

SPW Gaskets Series A Class 600

SPW Gaskets Series A Class 900

SPW Gaskets Series B Class 150

SPW Gaskets Series B Class 300

SPW Gaskets Series B Class 400

SPW Gaskets Series B Class 600

SPW Gaskets Series B Class 900


Heat Transfer by Heat Exchangers

Heat Transfer general

Shell and Tube

Tubes and Tubesheet

Shell Assembly

TEMA Designations

Collar Bolts

Plate Heat Exchangers

Summary Plate Heat Exchanger

Air Cooled Heat Exchangers

Introduction to AC-HEs


Pumps general

Centrifugal Pumps

Positive Displacement Pumps


Major Types of Industrial Scrubbers

Storage Tanks

What are Storage Tanks?

Safety of storage tanks

Flame Arresters

Breather Valve

Pressure Vessels

Spherical & Cylindrical Vessels

Bonding Process

Explosive cladding/welding

Distillation Column

What are Distillation Columns?

Distillation Column Internals

Lifting and Rigging

Types of Cranes


Special Fittings

Lokring® Fittings

G-Range Pipe Connectors

Victaulic® pipe joining systems

Cam Lock & Chicago couplings

Special Components

Strainer - Y-Type & Basket

Expansion Joints

Level Gauges


Orifice Plates

Definition of Orifice Plates

Dimensions Orifice Square

Dimensions Orifice Restriction

Flow Measurement

Venturi Flow Meters

Flow Nozzles

Flow Orifice Plates

Special Technics

Reinforced Branch Connection

Hot Tapping and Line Stopping

Images Hot taps & Line stops

Cutter Sizes for Hot Tapping


Steel, from the beginning

What is Steel?

Steel making

Steel Structures Process Plant

Pipe Racks

Pipe Supports Process Plant

Pipe Supports general

Parts of Pipe Supports

Pipe Support Spacing

Spring Hangers/Supports

Dimensions Steel Beams NEN-EN 10025-1/2

HEA Beams

HEB Beams

HEM Beams

IPE and INP Beams

UNP and UPE Beams

Angle Steel equal

Angle Steel unequal

Tee Steel equal/unequal

Round and Square Steel

Flat Steel



About Deutsches Institut für Normung


Dimensions Flanges Type 11

Weld Neck Flange, PN10

Weld Neck Flange, PN16

Weld Neck Flange, PN25

Weld Neck Flange, PN40

Weld Neck Flange, PN63

Dimensions Flanges Type 11

Weld Neck Flange, PN100

Weld Neck Flange, PN160

Weld Neck Flange, PN250

Weld Neck Flange, PN320

Weld Neck Flange, PN400


Steam and Condensate

Steam - The Energy Fluid

A basic overview of a steam system

What is Steam?

What is Condensate?

Steam traps

What are Steam Traps?

Thermostatic steam traps

Mechanical steam traps

Thermodynamic steam traps

Orifice-Venturi Steam Traps

Steam distribution

Steam distribution system

Pipes and pipe sizing

Pipe expansion and supports

Steam Tables

Properties for Saturated Steam


Civil Engineering

What is Civil Engineering?

Engineer's Day

India's greatest Civil Engineer


Palm Island, Dubai UAE

The Delta Works in the Netherlands

The Oosterscheldekering

The Maeslantkering


The Millau Viaduct


The Euro Tunnel


Kansai International Airport


Three Gorges Dam

Sayano Shushenskaya Dam


Welding general

Welding Procedures

Basic Welding Joints

TIG Welding

MIG Welding

Electrode Welding

Bonding Process

Explosive cladding/welding

Non Destructive Testing

Dye Penetrant Inspection

Magnetic Particle Inspection

Radiographic Testing (RT)

Ultrasonic Testing

Positive Material Identification

Eddy Current testing

Pressure testing

Risks of Pneumatic test

Pressure testing equipment

Pressure testing in practice

Safe distance Pressure testing

Testing Tools

Flange Weld Tester

In-Line Weld Test Tools

Welding req O-Let Fittings

Welding O-Let Fittings

Nord Stream Pipeline

1. Introduction

2. Preparation for pipe laying

3. Mfg Large Steel components

4. Logistics by the Numbers

5. Saipem's Castoro Sei

6. Saipem's Castoro Dieci

7. Allseas Solitaire

8. Pipe Laying

9. Tie-Ins & Hyperbaric welding

10. Pre-Commissioning

Fossils into Fuels

Introduction to fossil fuels

Exploration of oil and gas

Oil and gas extraction

Transportation and Storage

Petroleum Refining Processes

Facts from the OIL industry

Actual Crude Oil prices

2011 global Oil reserves

2010 global Gas reserves

The end of the Oil age


Various Piping Related Articles

Videos from the World of Piping

Overview of all videos that can be viewed on