1. ASTM A193 B7 v.s. A193 B7M Stud Bolts
    ASTM A193 B7, ASTM A193 B7M, ASTM A193 B16, ASTM A320 L7, ASTM A320 L43, ASTM A193 B8, ASTM A194, ASTM A194 Grade 2, ASTM A194 Grade 4, ASTM A194 Grade 7, ASTM A194 Grade 8/8M..studbolt studbolts studs stud stud
  2. ASTM A193 B7 vs A320 L7 Stud Bolts
    ASTM A193 B7, ASTM A193 B16, ASTM A320 L7, ASTM A320 L43, ASTM A193 B8, ASTM A194, ASTM A194 Grade 2, ASTM A194 Grade 4, ASTM A194 Grade 7, ASTM A194 Grade 8/8M..studbolt studbolts studs stud stud
  3. ASTM A194 Gr7 vs A194 Gr4 heavy hex nuts
    In 2017, ASTM A194 Grade 4 nuts were removed from the ASTM A194 specification..heavy hex nut dimensions
  4. Most common stud bolts materials
    ASTM A193, ASTM A453 (HIGH-TEMP.), ASTM A320 (LOW-TEMP.), ASTM A182 (Duplex and Super Duplex)..studbolt studbolts studs stud
  5. Method for calculating Stud Bolt length
    The Stud Bolt theoretical length can be calculated by means of the formula.. L = 2 (s + n + h + rf) + g..studbolt studbolts studs stud stud bolt length calculator
  6. Bolts and Nuts for flanged connections
    ASME B1.1 Unified Inch Screw Threads, Marking of Stud Bolts, Grades of Stud Bolts..flanges studbolt studbolts studs stud
  7. Thread Pitch Chart
    Thread series cover designations of diameter/pitch combinations that are measured by the number of threads per inch (TPI) applied to a single diameter..studbolt studbolts studs stud
  8. Dimensions of Heavy Hex Nuts ASME B18.2.2 used with Stud Bolts ASME B16.5
    Heavy hex nuts are slightly larger and thicker than standard (finished) hex nuts. There are numerous grades and the heavy pattern is typically used for large diameter and high strength bolts..studbolt studbolts studs stud
  9. Metric Nut Dimensions Chart
    Width Across Flats, Width Across Corners, Height of the Nut, according to ISO 4032..
  10. Dimensions Stud Bolts for RF to RTJ flanges ASME B16.5
    Pressure Classes 150 to 2500, Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 24, Length dimensional tolerances for all Stud Bolts..studbolt studbolts studs stud nominal pipe size
  11. The Delta Works in the Netherlands - The Maeslantkering
    The Maeslantkering is a storm surge barrier on the imaginary dividing line between the Nieuwe Waterweg (New Waterway) located at Hoek van Holland in the Netherlands..
  12. The Delta Works in the Netherlands - The Oosterscheldekering
    The Oosterscheldekering (in English.. Eastern Scheldt storm surge barrier), between the islands Schouwen-Duiveland and Noord-Beveland, is the largest of the 13 ambitious Delta Works series of dams and storm surge barriers, designed to protect the Netherlands from flooding from the North Sea..
  13. Engineer's Day in India
    In remembrance of Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya, the most outstanding Engineer of all times, the Engineering fraternity of India celebrates 'Engineer's Day' every year on 15th of September..engineers day
  14. Underground - Euro Tunnel
    Started in 1987 and completed in 1994, the Euro Tunnel, which is also called the Channel Tunnel, or more popularly, the Chunnel, is one of the most challenging civil engineering projects of the 20th century..
  15. History - Facts about the Great Wall of China
    The Great Wall of China is an ancient series of walls and fortifications located in northern China, built around 500 years ago..
  16. India is all set to produce the worlds largest number of engineers..
    Around 66% men in the world are interested in engineering while the figure stands as low as 43% for women globally. However when it comes to India, both men and women have shown great interest in engineering - the highest percentage in the world..
  17. Airports - Kansai International Airport
    American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) selected Kansai International Airport in 2001 as one of the 10 civil engineering achievements with the greatest positive impact on life in the 20th century..
  18. Megastructures - The Palm Island, Dubai UAE
    5 Km into the Persian Gulf, lie the Palm Islands, Dubai. Palm Jumeirah can even be seen from space. It is the biggest man made island in the world. Dubai is one of the richest places in the world, having size twice that of London..
  19. Dams - Sayano Shushenskaya Dam
    The Sayano-Shushenskaya Dam is located on the Yenisei River, near Sayanogorsk in Khakassia, Russia. It is the largest power plant in Russia and the 9th-largest hydroelectric plant in the world, by average power generation..
  20. Dams - Three Gorges Dam
    China's Three Gorges Project is the largest water conservation project in the world. Taking the total amount of concrete work as one example, the Three Gorges Project totals 26.43 million cubic meters, 2.5 times the figure for the Gezhouba Barrage project and twice that of the Itaipu project in Brazil..
  21. Bridges - Millau Viaduct
    The Millau Viaduct (French.. le Viaduc de Millau) is a cable-stayed bridge that spans the valley of the River Tarn near Millau in southern France..
  22. What is Civil Engineering?
    Civil engineering is arguably the oldest engineering discipline. It deals with the built environment and can be dated to the first time someone placed a roof over his or her head or laid a tree trunk across a river to make it easier to get across..
  23. Dimensions Weld Neck Flanges DIN EN 1092/1 Type 11 PN 10 to PN 400
    ISO 7005-1 (steel flanges) PN 20, 50, 110, 150, 260, 420 are designed to be interchangeable with ASME B16.5 and MSS SP-44 flanges, ISO 7005-1 flanges are not identical to ASME B16.5 and MSS SP44 flanges but are deemed to comply with the dimensions specified in the ASME B16.5 and MSS SP44..pn16 flange dimensions pn10 flange dimensions pn 16 flange dimensions
  24. Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN)
    DIN, the German Institute for Standardization, develops norms and standards as a service to industry, the state and society as a whole..
  25. Old and new DIN Designations
    Over the years, many DIN standards were integrated into the ISO standards, and thus also a part of the EN standards..
  26. Coordination System - Reference Points
    Before beginning with making drawings for a new process plant or building, there must be determine where the new building in the area will take his place. A coordination system, which refers to an officially recognized point therefore is necessary..
  27. Coordination System - Plot Plan and Equipment Arrangement
    A Plot Plan is a scale drawing that gives an overview (top view) of the entire plant. All roads, buildings, units, tank farms, employee entrance etc. will be given on a Plot Plan..
  28. Coordination System - Piping Arrangement
    Orthographic drawings are views (front, side, top etc.) of an piping system, and in Piping they are called 'Piping Arrangements'..
  29. Piping Material Specification
    Pipe specifications are technical documents prepared by companies to provide additional requirements for a specific product or application..
  30. Piping Material Specification
    Perforated Temporary Conical Strainer..
  31. Piping Material Specification
    T-Type Strainers..
  32. Piping Material Specification
    Dimensions Bleed Rings, 1/2 inch or 3/4 inch threaded or socket weld taps are standard. Multiple taps can be provided but must be orientated by customer. Thickness of ring may be affected if larger taps are required..
  33. Piping Material Specification
    Product Sampler Cooler..
  34. Piping Material Specification
    Pipe Fabrication Misalignment Tolerances..
  35. Piping Material Specification
    Line Blinds NPS 1/2 to NPS 24..
  36. Piping Material Specification
    This Standard contains the basic information for piping material and Valve specifications..valves
  37. Piping Material Specification
    Unless otherwise noted in the specifications, all pressures and temperatures referred to shall be considered Design Conditions..
  38. Piping Material Specification
    Abbreviations: LOL-Integrally Reinforced Lateral Branch Connection (e.g..latrolet)..
  39. Piping Material Specification - Valve tag numbering
    All Valve sequence numbers shall start at 00 and number ascending through 99..valves
  40. Piping Material Specification
    Standard Installation Detail - Utility Station..
  41. Piping Material Specification
    Special Fabricated Larger Diameter Reducers..
  42. Piping Material Specification
    Four Weld 90° Long Radius Miter Elbow..
  43. Piping Material Specification
    Two Weld 45° Long Radius Miter Elbow..
  44. What are Engineering Standards?
    A technical standard is an established norm or requirement. It is usually a formal document that establishes uniform engineering or technical criteria, methods, processes and practices..
  45. Field Fabrication of Piping spools
    Some contractors prefer to do most, if not all fabrication in the shop, others prefer to set up at the job-site, while others are flexible enough to utilize the best of both methods..
  46. Pre-Fabrication of Piping spools
    Pipe spools are fabricated from a number of raw pipes and pipe fittings (e.g. elbows, flanges, tees, etc.) in fabrication shops..
  47. Coordination System - Piping Isometrics
    Unlike orthographics, piping isometrics allow the pipe to be drawn in a manner by which the length, width and depth are shown in a single view. Isometrics are usually drawn from information found on a plan and elevation views..isometric drawing
  48. Thermal Insulation - Types and Materials of Insulation
    There are varying opinions as to the classification of mechanical insulation by the service temperature range for which insulation is used..
  49. Thermal Insulation - Space Requirements of Insulation
    The space requirements of the insulation must be taken into account when the installation is being designed and planned. Therefore, the insulation thicknesses should be determined in the early planning stages..
  50. Thermal Insulation - Insulation of Piping
    In addition to the correct isometric construction and fastening of the piping, the piping insulation also has an important function..isometric drawing isometrics
  51. Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (PiD)
    The piping and Instrument Diagram (PiD) provides a schematic representation of the piping, process control, and instrumentation which shows the functional relationships among the system components..
  52. Pipe Line Spacing Chart
    Standard Pipe line Spacing, To determine the line spacing for insulated lines add the insulation thickness to dimensions 'A' and 'B'..
  53. Forword - What are Piping Specifications?
    The Piping Specification (abbreviated.. Pipe Spec) is a document prepared during the design phase of any project. It provides the appropriate selection, specification and material grade of pipe and piping components for a given service..
  54. Piping Specification (Example)
    This specification covers carbon steel piping for general non-corrosive gas and liquid process service..
  55. Branch Table
    A branch table defines the connection type between a main or main line and a branch line. The strength decreases through the hole in the main pipe. The engineer will select the applicable branch type to ensure that sufficient reinforcement supports the pipe with the branch hole..
  56. Length and Spacing Welded Nozzles
    Minimum Length and Spacing with and without Reninforcement..
  57. Heat Tracing of Piping Systems
    Heat-tracing systems can be divided into two broad classes, electric and fluid..
  58. Coordination System - Symbols for single line Piping Arrangements
    Butt Welded, Socket Welded and Threaded piping Arrangement Symbols..buttweld socketweld
  59. Heat Exchanger Symbols on PID
    U-Tube, Floating Head, Kettle-Type, Air-Cooled..
  60. Coordination System - Isometrics Symbols
    Fittings, Flanges, Valves, Miscellaneous..isometric drawing
  61. Mechanical symbols for PiD's (Piping and Instrumentation Diagram)
    Strainers, Bursting Discs, Steam Traps, Sight Glasses, Flexible Hoses..
  62. Piping Flexibility Thermal Expansion of Pipe
    This article presents some of the quick methods for checking piping flexibility. These methods include visual, hand calculation, and micro computer approaches..
  63. Weld End Preparation at Unequal Wall Thicknesses
    In most piping systems there are components such as valves, castings, heavier header sections, and equipment nozzles which are welded to the pipe..
  64. Eliminate greenhouse gas. Ammonia is the most advantageous solution
    How the shipping industry is betting on ammonia as part of a cleaner energy mix..
  65. Cement production and emissions
    Concrete is the most widely used building material in the world. It is so flexible, strong and practical that we use unimaginable amounts of the material worldwide..
  66. COP27 Reaches Breakthrough Agreement on New 'Loss and Damage' Fund for Vulnerable Countries
    Countries launched a package of 25 new collaborative actions in five key areas: power, road transport, steel, hydrogen and agriculture..
  67. Study highlights possible emissions reductions with thermoplastic composite pipe
    Findings suggest that TCP’s carbon footprint could be 30-60% lower than an equivalent carbon steel pipeline solution..
  68. Danish Energy Island
    Danish Energy Agency facility is the largest construction project in the country's history..
  69. Latest Environment Posts
    Since the industrial revolution, humans have emitted more than 2,000 gigatons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere..
  70. What is green steel?
    Steel manufacturing produces more CO2 than any other heavy industry, comprising around 8% of total global emissions..
  71. Super-hot rocks 12 miles below surface could provide UNLIMITED clean energy worldwide
    The future of clean, renewable energy is literally under our feet. Earth's core is very hot - at least 400°C (752°F) at the center..
  72. Shell to start building Europe's biggest green hydrogen plant
    The 200 MW Holland Hydrogen 1 electrolysis plant will be built on the Second Maasvlakte in the Port of Rotterdam the Netherlands..
  73. Maldives Floating City
    In a turquoise lagoon just 10 minutes by boat from Male, the Maldivian capital, a floating city big enough to house 20,000 people is being built..
  74. Heat Transfer - Air Cooled Heat Exchangers
    Typically, an air-cooled exchanger for process use consists of a finned-tube bundle with rectangular box headers on both ends of the tubes. Cooling air is provided by one or more fans..
  75. Heat Transfer - Cleaning of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
    Clean heat exchanger tubes are essential to the functionality of shell and tube heat exchangers. When they become fouled, the result can be a decrease in the efficiency of the entire unit..
  76. What are Collar Bolts and where they used?
    Collar bolts are used for removable bundle heat exchangers, to holding the bundle in place, if only the channel must be removed..colar color
  77. Demister Pad's in Process Piping
    Demister Pad's are similar to air filter's, which are used for removing dust particles from a stream of air. The demister pads are used to removing micron-size liquid particles from a vapor stream..
  78. What is a Distillation Column?
    There are many types of distillation columns, each designed to perform specific types of separations, and each design differs in terms of complexity..
  79. Distillation Column Internals
    A bubble cap tray has riser or chimney fitted over each hole, and a cap that covers the riser. Sieve trays are simply metal plates with holes in them..
  80. Explosion - Bonding - Cladding - Welding
    Explosion Bonding or Explosion Cladding or Explosion Welding is a technically based industrial welding process. As any other welding process, it complies with well understood, reliable principles..
  81. Flame Arresters
    A Flame Arrester also spelled arrestor is a device which allows gas to pass through it but stops a flame in order to prevent a larger fire or explosion. There is an enormous variety of situations in which flame arresters are applied..
  82. Knock Out drums in Flaring systems
    A Knock Out drum is a vessel in the flare header designed to remove and accumulate condensed and entrained liquids from the relief gases..
  83. Flaring in Industry
    A gas flare, alternatively known as a flare stack is a important safety device used in refineries and petrochemical facilities. They safely burn excess hydrocarbon gases which cannot be recovered or recycled..
  84. Heat Transfer - What are Heat Exchangers?
    A Heat Exchanger is a device built for efficient Heat Transfer from one medium to another. The medium may be separated by a solid wall, so that they never mix, or they may be in direct contact..Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association, Inc. TEMA
  85. Heat Transfer - Heat Exchangers Shell and Tube
    Shell and tube Heat Exchangers have the ability to transfer large amounts of heat in relatively low cost, servicable designs. They can provide large amounts of effective tube surface while minimizing the requirements of floor space, liquid volume and weight..
  86. Heat Transfer - Tubes and Tubesheet
    Tubing that is generally used in TEMA sizes is made from low carbon steel, copper, Admiralty, Copper-Nickel, stainless steel, Hastalloy, Inconel, titanium and a few others. It is common to use tubing from 5/8 inch to 1-1/2 inch in these designs..
  87. Heat Transfer - Heat Exchanger Shell Assembly
    The shell is constructed either from pipe up to 24in or rolled and welded plate metal. For reasons of economy, low carbon steel is in common use, but other materials suitable for extreme temperature or corrosion resistance are often specified..
  88. Heat Transfer - Heat Exchangers TEMA Design
    Because of the number of variations in mechanical designs for front and rear heads and shells, and for commercial reasons, TEMA has designated a system of notations that correspond to each major type of front head, shell type and rear head..Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association, Inc. (TEMA)
  89. Heat Transfer - Plate Heat Exchangers
    The first commercially successful plate-and-frame Heat Exchanger in the world was introduced in 1923 by Dr. Richard Seligman, the founder of the Aluminum Plant and Vessel Company Ltd., commonly known today as APV..
  90. Spherical and Cylindrical Pressure Vessels
    According to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), Code Section VIII, pressure vessels are containers for the containment of pressure, either internal or external..
  91. Pumps - Centrifugal Pump
    Centrifugal Pumps has been designed specially for use in the food, dairy, beverage, pharmaceutical and light chemical industries. Centrifugal pumps including multi-stage designs and those for high inlet pressure, can handle most low viscosity applications..
  92. Pumps - What is a Pump?
    A pump is a machine used for the purpose of transferring quantities of fluids and or gases from one place to another. Pump types generally fall into two main categories - Rotodynamic and Positive Displacement, of which there are many forms..
  93. Pumps - Positive Displacement Pump
    A Positive Displacement Pump has an expanding cavity on the suction side of the pump and a decreasing cavity on the discharge side. Liquid is allowed to flow into the pump as the cavity on the suction side expands and the liquid is forced out of the discharge as the cavity collapses..
  94. Heat Transfer - Tubeside Repair by Plugging
    Repair of tubes may be accomplished by plugging the tube at the tubesheet with a welded or mechanical attachment..
  95. Industrial Scrubbers
    Scrubbers are air pollution control devices that use liquid to remove particulate matter or gases from an industrial exhaust or flue gas stream. This atomized liquid (typically water) entrains particles and pollutant gases in order to effectively wash them out of the gas flow..
  96. Industrial Silencers
    To prevent the harmful effects of noisy machinery and loud production floors on workers, many manufacturing facilities are turning to industrial silencers to reduce this risk and help with acoustic attenuation..
  97. Safety considerations for Atmospheric Storage Tanks
    Design and safety concern has come to a great concern as reported case of fires and explosion for the storage tank has been increasing over the years and these accident cause injuries and fatalities..
  98. Types of storage tanks
    Fixed-roof tanks, External floating roof tanks, Internal floating roof tanks, Domed external floating roof tanks, Horizontal tanks, Pressure tanks, Variable vapor space tanks, LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) tanks..
  99. Tank Implosion
    The most common cause of vacuum in tanks is caused by steam (water vapor). When you fill a tank with water vapor, most of the air is pushed out of the tank..
  100. Manufacturing of Butt Weld Tees
    Hot Forming - The hot-extrusion process consists of enclosing a piece of metal, heated to forging temperature, in a chamber called a 'container' having a die at one end with an opening of the shape of the desired finished section, and applying pressure to the metal through the opposite end of the container..
  101. Manufacturing of Butt Welded Elbows
    The Mandrel method (Hot Forming) is one of the most common manufacturing methods for manufacturing Elbows from pipes. After heating the raw material, it is pushed over a die called 'mandrel' which allows the pipe to expand and bend simultaneously..
  102. Manufacturing of Butt Welded Caps
    Deep Drawing method is one of the most common manufacturing methods for caps, where plate is cut out in a circle and formed by deep drawing..
  103. Butt Weld fitting Elbow
    The function of a elbow is to change direction or flow in a piping system. By default, there are 5 opportunities, the 45°, 90° and 180° elbows, all three in the long radius version, and in addition the 90° and 180° elbows both in the short radius version..
  104. Butt Weld fittings Tees straight and reducing
    The primary purpose of a Tee is to make a 90° branch from the main run of pipe. Standard there are 2 possibilities, on behalf of the equal tee and reducing tee. The equal tee (or straight tee) is used as the branch has the same diameter as the run-pipe. The reducing tee is used as the branch has a smaller diameter as the run-pipe..
  105. Butt Weld fittings
    Reducers, Caps, Stub ends, Swage nipples..
  106. Grades of materials used for Fittings acc. to various ASTM standards
    Frequently used ASTM Grades for Fittings - ASTM A234 Gr WPA, A234 Gr WPB, A234 Gr WPC, A234 Gr WP1, A234 Gr WP11, A234 Gr WP12, A234 Gr WP22, A234 Gr WP5, A234 Gr WP9, A420 Gr WPL6, A420 Gr WPL3, A403 Gr WP304, A403 Gr WP316, A403 Gr WP321, A403 Gr WP347..
  107. Butt Weld Fittings general
    A pipe fitting is defined as a part used in a piping system, for changing direction, branching or for change of pipe diameter, and which is mechanically joined to the system..
  108. Dimensions Butt Weld End Caps ASME B16.9
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 48 + dimensional tolerances + weights of End Caps..
  109. Dimensions Butt Weld Elbows 45°-90° ASME B16.9
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 48 LR and 3D + dimensional tolerances..elbow dimensions
  110. Dimensions Butt Weld Elbows 90° SR ASME B16.9
    Dimensions NPS 1-6 + dimensional tolerances..elbow dimensions
  111. Dimensions Butt Weld Elbows 180° LR and SR ASME B16.9
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 24 + dimensional tolerances..elbow dimensions
  112. Dimensions Butt Weld Reducing Elbows 90° LR ASME B16.9
    Dimensios nps 3-24 + dimensional tolerances..elbow dimensions
  113. Dimensions Butt Weld Reducers Concentric and Eccentric ASME B16.9
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 40 + dimensional tolerances..concentric reducer dimensions
  114. Dimensions Socket Weld Caps
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 4 ASME B16.11 Class 3000 to 6000..
  115. Dimensions Socket Weld Couplings
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 4 ASME B16.11 Class 3000 to 6000..
  116. Dimensions Socket Weld Elbows
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 4 ASME B16.11 Class 3000 to 6000..
  117. Dimensions Socket Weld Reducing Couplings
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 2 ASME B16.11 Class 3000 to 6000..
  118. Dimensions Socket Weld Tees and Crosses
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 4 ASME B16.11 Class 3000 to 6000..
  119. Dimensions Butt Weld Straight Tees ASME B16.9
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 48 + dimensional tolerances..
  120. Dimensions Butt Weld Reducing Tees ASME B16.9
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 48 + dimensional tolerances..
  121. Dimensions Threaded Hex Head Bushings
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 4 ASME B16.11 - Hex head bushings of one-size reduction should not be used in services where they might be subject to harmful loads and forces other than internal pressures..
  122. Dimensions Threaded End Caps
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 4 ASME B16.11 Class 3000 to 6000..
  123. Dimensions Threaded Full and Half Couplings
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 4 ASME B16.11 Class 3000 to 6000..
  124. Dimensions Threaded Elbows 90°/45°
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 4 ASME B16.11 Class 2000 to 6000..
  125. Dimensions Hex and Square and Round Head Plugs
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 4 ASME B16.11..
  126. Dimensions Threaded Street Elbows
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 2 ASME B16.11 Class 3000 to 6000..
  127. Dimensions Threaded Tees and Crosses
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 4 ASME B16.11 Class 2000 to 6000..
  128. Dimensions Reducing Sockolets
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 6 MSS SP97 Class 3000 to 6000..
  129. Dimensions Size on Size Sockolets
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 6 MSS SP97 Class 3000..
  130. Dimensions Lap Joint Stub Ends CS
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 24 schedule STD and XS ASME B16.9..
  131. Dimensions Lap Joint Stub Ends SS
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 24 schedule 10S MSS SP-43 type A/B..
  132. Dimensions Reducing Thredolets
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 6 MSS SP97 Class 3000 to 6000..
  133. Dimensions Size on Size Thredolets
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 6 MSS SP97 Class 3000..
  134. Dimensions Weldolet Reducing STD
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 24, MSS SP97..weldolet dimensions
  135. Dimensions Weldolet Reducing XS
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 24, MSS SP97..weldolet dimensions
  136. Dimensions Weldolet Size on Size STD
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 24, MSS SP97..weldolet dimensions
  137. Dimensions Weldolet Size on Size XS
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 24, MSS SP97..weldolet dimensions
  138. What is Induction Bending?
    Induction Bending is a controlled means of bending pipes through the application of local heating using high frequency induced electrical power..
  139. Generic Marking Standards and Requirements
    The ASME B31.3 Code requires random examination of materials and components to ensure conformance to listed specifications and standards. B31.3 also requires these materials to be free from defects. Component standards and specifications have various marking requirements..
  140. O'let Branch Connections
    Branch Connection fittings (also known as O'lets) are fittings which provide an outlet from a larger pipe to a smaller one (or one of the same size)..
  141. Definition and Details of Socket Weld Fittings ASME B16.11
    A Socket Weld is a pipe attachment detail in which a pipe is inserted into a recessed area of a valve, fitting or flange. In contrast to buttweld fittings, Socket Weld fittings are mainly used for small pipe diameters (Small Bore Piping); generally for piping whose nominal diameter is NPS 2 or smaller..valves
  142. Definition and Details of Threaded Fittings ASME B16.11
    Threaded joints probably represent the oldest method of joining piping systems. Like Socket Weld fittings, threaded fittings are mainly used for small pipe diameters (Small Bore Piping); generally for piping whose nominal diameter is NPS 2 or smaller..
  143. Weights of Butt Weld Elbows
    Weights of the Elbows come from a third-party source, and may vary depending on the manufacturer..
  144. Weights of Butt Weld Reducers Concentric and Eccentric
    Weights of the Reducers come from a third-party source, and may vary depending on the manufacturer..concentric reducer dimensions
  145. Weights of Butt Weld Tees
    Weights of the Tee's come from a third-party source, and may vary depending on the manufacturer..
  146. Welding requirements of O-Let Fittings
    Surveys of small-branch connections undertaken as a result of Technical Directive No.12 have found a number of integrally reinforced branch fittings which were in service with insufficient attachment welds..
  147. Raised face height (RF)
    For the height measures H and B of all described dimensions of flanges on this website, with exception of the Lap Joint Flange, it is important to understand and remember the following..
  148. What is an Anchor Flange?
    An anchor flange is a device that is installed on a pipeline to counteract axial movement, and prevents the pipeline from moving..
  149. Dimensions 6B Flanges
    API 6A Class 2000-3000-5000 PSI Working Pressure..flange dimensions
  150. Dimensions 6BX Integral Flanges
    API 6A Class 2000 to 20000 PSI Working Pressure..flange dimensions
  151. Dimensions Blind Flanges and Stud Bolts ASME B16.5
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 24 - Pressure Classes 150 to 2500 - Tolerances Blind Flanges..studbolt studbolts studs stud rf flanges flange dimensions
  152. Dimensions Weld Neck and Slip-On flanges BS 3293 Class 150-600
    BS 3293:1960 is a dimensional British Standard only and applies to forged carbon steel slip-on and welding neck flanges of nominal sizes 26 in and larger, for use in the petroleum industry..rf flanges flange dimensions
  153. Dimensions Lap Joint Flanges and Stud Bolts ASME B16.5
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 24 Pressure Classes 150 to 2500 Tolerances Lap Joint Flanges..studbolt studbolts studs stud flange dimensions
  154. Dimensions Class 150 to 2500 Studding Outlets or Pad Flanges
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 24, Flat Bottom, Shell or Head Mount, Tangential Mount..
  155. Dimensions Orifice Weld Neck RF flanges
    Dimensions NPS 1 to 24, ASME B16.36, Class 300-2500..flange dimensions
  156. Dimensions Ring-Joint Facings
    Dimensions NPS 1 to 24 ASME B16.5 Class 150 to 2500..
  157. Dimensions Orifice Weld Neck RTJ flanges
    Dimensions NPS 1 to 24, ASME B16.36, Class 600-2500..flange dimensions
  158. Dimensions Slip On Flanges and Stud Bolts ASME B16.5
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 24 Pressure Classes 150-1500 Tolerances Slip On Flanges..studbolt studbolts studs stud rf flanges flange dimensions
  159. Dimensions Socket Weld Flanges and Stud Bolts ASME B16.5
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 2.1/2 Pressure Classes 150-1500 Tolerances Socket Weld Flanges..studbolt studbolts studs stud rf flanges flange dimensions
  160. Dimensions of Spades and Ring Spacers
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 24, ASME B16.48, Class 150 to 2500..
  161. Dimensions Spectacle Blinds
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 24, ASME B16.48, Class 150 to 2500..
  162. Dimensions Threaded Flanges and Stud Bolts ASME B16.5
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 2.1/2 Pressure Classes 150 to 2500 Tolerances Threaded Flanges..studbolt studbolts studs stud rf flanges flange dimensions
  163. Dimensions and Weights of Spades and Ring Spacers above 24 inch series A
    Dimensions NPS 26 TO 60 ASME B16.47..
  164. Dimensions Weld Neck and Blind flanges ASME B16.47 series A
    Dimensions NPS 26 TO 60 Class 150-900..rf flanges flange dimensions
  165. Dimensions Weld Neck and Blind flanges ASME B16.47 series B
    Dimensions NPS 26 TO 60 Class 150-900..rf flange flange dimensions
  166. Dimensions Weld Neck Flanges and Stud Bolts ASME B16.5
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 24, Pressure Classes 150 to 2500, Tolerances Weld Neck..studbolt studbolts studs stud weld neck flange dimensions rf flanges
  167. Dimensions in Inches Weld Neck Flanges and Stud Bolts ASME B16.5
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 24 Pressure Classes 150 to 2500..studbolt studbolts studs stud weld neck flange dimensions rf flanges
  168. Bleed or Drip ring
    For mounting between ASME B16.5 RF flanges..
  169. Bolt Hole Orientation
    All Flange Bolt Holes Straddle the Centerlines Plant North..
  170. Flange Bolting Torque Table
    Cold Service - PTFE Coated - ASTM A193 and ASTM A320..
  171. Flange Gaskets and Bolts
    To realize a leak-free flange connection gaskets are necessary. To connect two flanges with each other, also bolts are necessary..
  172. Dimensions Male-Female and Tongue and Groove flanges ASME B16.5
    Large Male and Female Flanges, Small Male and Female Flanges, Large Tongue and Groove Flanges, Small Tongue and Groove Flanges..flange dimensions
  173. Grades of materials used for Flanges acc. to various ASTM standards
    Frequently used ASTM Grades for Flanges A105-A182-A350..
  174. The most used flange types in Petro and chemical industry
    Weld Neck flanges - Slip On flanges - Socket Weld flanges - Lap joint flanges - Threaded flanges - Blinf flanges - Orifice flanges - Long Weld Neck flanges - Expander flanges - Nipo flanges - Reducing flanges - Pad flanges..
  175. Pressure Classes of Flanges
    Forged steel flanges ASME B16.5 are made in seven primary Pressure Classes..class 150 pressure rating
  176. Types of Flange faces
    Flat Face (FF) - Ring Type Joint (RTJ) - Tongue and Groove (T&G) - Male and Female (M&F)..
  177. Special Flanges
    Long Welding Neck flange, Pad Flanges, Weldoflange / Nipoflange, Expander flange, Reducing flange..
  178. Orifice Flanges ASME B16.36
    Orifice Flanges are used with orifice meters for the purpose of measuring the flow rate of either liquids or gases in the respective pipeline..
  179. Details Spectacle blinds Spades and Ring spacers
    Spectacle Blinds are generally applied to permanently separating pipesystems, or just to connect with each other..
  180. Flange Face Finish
    The ASME B16.5 code requires that the flange face (raised face and flat face) has a specific roughness to ensure that this surface be compatible with the gasket and provide a high quality seal..
  181. Bolt Tensioning
    Preload (residual load) = Applied Torque minus Frictional Losses..
  182. Torque Tightening
    With Torque Tightening (the application of preload to a fastener by the turning of the fastener's nut) the correct bolt tension can be realized..
  183. Types of Flanges
    The most used flange types ASME B16.5 are.. Welding Neck, Slip On, Socket Weld, Lap Joint, Threaded and Blind flange..
  184. Flange Insulation Gasket Kit
    Gasket sets for flange insulation are designed to ensure the integrity and reliability of the pipeline and piping system through safety and corrosion protection..
  185. List of ASTM Material Specifications
    and ASME pressure and temperature ratings..
  186. Generic Marking Standards and Requirements
    The ASME B31.3 Code requires random examination of materials and components to ensure conformance to listed specifications and standards. B31.3 also requires these materials to be free from defects..
  187. What is a Smurf flange?
    Smurf flanges are specially designed for filling and draining piping systems during a hydrotest..
  188. What is a Swivel Ring Flange?
    The Swivel Ring Flange is comparable to a set of stub end and lap joint flange, with the difference that an Swivel Ring Flange is used for higher pressure and mostly in offshore / subsea applications..
  189. Dimensions Spiral Wound Gaskets EN 1514-2
    Dimensions DN10-DN3000 to be used with Flanges according to DIN EN 1092-1..spiral wound gasket dimensions
  190. Dimensions of Non-Metallic Flat Gaskets ASME B16.21
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 24 to be used with RF flanges ASME B16.5..
  191. Dimensions of Non-Metallic Flat Gaskets ASME B16.21
    Dimensions NPS 26 TO 60 to be used with RF flanges ASME B16.47 series A..
  192. Dimensions of Non-Metallic Flat Gaskets ASME B16.21
    Dimensions NPS 26 TO 60 to be used with RF flanges ASME B16.47 series B..
  193. Dimensions of Grooved (Camprofile) Gaskets ASME B16.20
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 24 to be used with Raised Face flanges ASME B16.5..
  194. Dimensions Double Metal Jacketed Gaskets ASME B16.20
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 24 to be used with Raised Face flanges ASME B16.5..
  195. Dimensions and Tolerances Type R Ring Gasket ASME B16.20
    to be used with RTJ flanges ASME B16.5 and B16.47 series A..
  196. Dimensions Spiral Wound Gaskets ASME B16.20 for ASME B16.5 flanges
    Dimensions 1/2 to 24 used with RF flanges ASME B16.5 Class 150 to 2500..spiral wound gasket dimensions
  197. Dimensions of Spiral Wound Gaskets ASME B16.20 for ASME B16.47-A flanges
    Dimensions NPS 26 to 60 used with Raised Face flanges ASME B16.47 series A Class 150-900..
  198. Dimensions of Spiral Wound Gaskets ASME B16.20 for ASME B16.47-B flanges
    Dimensions NPS 26 to 60 used with Raised Face flanges ASME B16.47 series B Class 150-900..
  199. Dishing of Spiral Wound Gaskets
    Why does the outer ring of a spiral wound gasket (with inner and outer rings) sometimes get warped (like a satellite dish) when installed?..
  200. Flexitallic Spiral Wound Gaskets
    Gaskets are colour coded to help expedite the selection and identity of the gaskets you need..
  201. Gaskets for flanged Connections
    Flange gaskets are used to create a static seal between two flanges faces, at various operating conditions, with varied pressure and temperature ratings..
  202. Large image of Cross Section of a Spiral Wound Gasket
  203. Large image of Lifting and Handling of a Pressure Vessel
  204. Large image of Equipment Arrangement looking South
  205. Large image of Top View Equipment Arrangement
  206. Large image of Orthographic View Overall Plot Plan
  207. Large image of Coordination System Orthographic View detailed Plot Plan
  208. Large image of Lifting and Handling of a Stainless Steel Storage Tank
  209. Large image of Cross Section of a Ball Valve
  210. Large image of reduced and full Port Ball Valve
  211. Large image of Butterfly Valve (Lug Weaver Type)valves bf valve bfv valve
  212. Large image of NON Rising Stem Gate Valve
  213. Large image of Rising Stem Gate Valve OS and Y
  214. Large image of detailed Globe Valve
  215. Large image of Globe Valve
  216. Large image of ORBIT Rising Stem Ball Valve
  217. Large image of Cross Section of a Piston Check Valve
  218. Large image of Truseal Double Block and Bleed Plug Valve
  219. Large image of Section of a Swing Check Valve
  220. Stainless Steel 316/304 vs 316L/304L
    As American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) basic grades, the only practical difference between 304 / 316 and 304L / 316L is carbon content..
  221. Brinell Hardness Testing
    The Brinell hardness test method as used to determine Brinell hardness is defined in ASTM E10..
  222. Differences between Cast Iron and Cast Steel
    No big difference from the chemical content and raw materials for cast iron vs cast steel..
  223. Differences between Casting and Forging Steels
    The main difference between a steel casting and a forging is that the forging is mechanically worked after solidification..
  224. What is Cathodic protection?
    Cathodic protection (CB) is the supply of direct current to steel objects that are in the ground or water..
  225. What is Charpy Testing?
    The Charpy test or notch impact test was developed in 1905 by Georges Charpy to determine the amount of energy absorbed by a material during fracture..
  226. Chemical Requirements Carbon Alloy Steels
    used in Piping applications..
  227. Chemical Requirements Austenitic Stainless Steels
    used in Piping applications..
  228. List of Chemical Elements
    The list of the 118 chemical elements identified as of 2022..
  229. What is cold forging?
    Cold forging, unlike hot forging, deforms metal below its recrystallization point - near or at room temperature..
  230. What is Cold Welding?
    Cold welding also known as Thread Galling is a phenomenon that can occur during the tightening - mainly at high speed - of threaded connections..
  231. Effects and Economic impact of Corrosion
    Corrosion is degradation of materials properties due to interactions with their environments, and corrosion of most metals (and many materials for that matter) is inevitable..
  232. What is Corrosion Allowance?
    Corrosion allowance is not only determined by the designer, but also and especially by a state or local agency..
  233. Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI)
    CUI is a common problem shared by the refining, petrochemical, power, industrial, onshore and offshore industries..
  234. Microbiologically Induced Corrosion (MiC)
    Microbiologically Induced Corrosion (MIC) technically functions as an accelerant to more conventional corrosion processes..
  235. Fireproofing for Petrochemical facilities
    The term fireproof does not necessarily mean that an item cannot ever burn.. It relates to measured performance under specific conditions of testing and evaluation..
  236. Galvanizing Materials
    Galvanizing is one of the most widely used to methods for protecting metal from corrosion..
  237. What is Hot forging?
    Hot forging involves heating a workpiece to about 75% of its melting temperature..
  238. Hastelloy Alloys
    Hastelloy metals and alloys are known for their superior ability to withstand high temperatures and corrosion..
  239. Inconel Alloys
    Inconel alloys are one of the most versatile metals available. Thanks to their high performance and superior properties, they are used in a wide range of industries..
  240. Monel Alloys
    Monel is a group of alloys of nickel (from 52 to 67%) and copper, with small amounts of iron, manganese, carbon and silicon..
  241. Comparing Steel Standards
    When comparing steel standards from different national and international standard development organizations, there is no such thing as equivalent steel standards..
  242. Painting of Industrial Equipment
    High-quality painting of piping, equipment and structures, is essential to prevent corrosion..
  243. Pickling and Passivation
    Pickling and Passivation are chemical treatments applied to the surface of stainless steel to remove contaminants and assist the formation of a continuous chromium-oxide, passive film..
  244. Rockwell Hardness Testing
    The Rockwell hardness test method, as defined in ASTM E-18, is the most commonly used hardness test method..
  245. Ultimate Tensile Strength
    Ultimate tensile strength is an important property of materials to determine their mechanical performance..
  246. Vickers Hardness Testing
    Vickers hardness testing, also called microhardness testing, is typically used for small parts, thin sections, or case depth work..
  247. What is White Rust?
    When zinc or aluminum turns white, many people don't really know what causes this to happen..
  248. CAESAR is the Pipe Stress Analysis standard
    CAESAR II is the Pipe Stress Analysis standard against which all others are measured and compared..
  249. Eindhoven student team to build the world's first car powered by formic acid
    Building a car that is powered by formic acid. That is the ambition of Team FAST, a new student team from Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e)..
  250. Exxon Mobile to expand Rotterdam hydrocracker
    ExxonMobil will expand the hydrocracker unit at its Rotterdam refinery to upgrade heavier byproducts into cleaner, higher-value finished products..
  251. Large Pipe Sizes in Millimeters and Inches
    Sizes 914.4mm to 3657.6mm, 36inch to 144inch..
  252. World's Top 25 Largest Refiners Jan 1, 2013
  253. Worlds Largest Oil and Gas Companies by their oil and natural gas reserves
  254. Liquefied natural gas (LNG)
    LNG is natural gas that has been cooled to -162°C (-260°F), changing it from a gas into a liquid that is 1/600th of its original volume..
  255. Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline
    At a length of 1,768km, the Baku Tbilisi Ceyhan (BTC) Pipeline is one of the great engineering endeavours of the new millennium..
  256. World's longest natural gas Pipeline
    An 8700 kilometer natural gas pipeline linking Turkmenistan to 15 provinces in China..
  257. Williams Geismar Olefins Plant Reboiler Rupture and Fire Geismar, Louisiana
    October 19, 2016, Baton Rouge, LA -- Today the CSB (U.S. Chemical Safety Board) released its final report into the June 13, 2013..
  258. Pneumatic Pressure Testing Failure
    Feb 07 2009 ONE worker was killed and 15 injured in an explosion on a construction site at Shanghai's Yangshan Deep Water Port..
  259. Pressure Vessel Failure during Hydro Test
    Apparently this pressure vessel had reached fifty percent of the required test pressure when the shell ruptured..
  260. Pressure Vessel Failure during Air Test
    Jan 26 2006..accident occurred in a factory in Brazil, during pneumatic pressure testing with Air from pipe work around a tank..
  261. Catastrophic failure during Hydro testing
    The fabrication, consisting of 24in schedule 30 pipe and fittings, was in the process of being hydro-tested when the failure occurred..
  262. Robots - The Future of the Oil Industry
    NASA's Mars rover may have something to teach the oil industry..
  263. Rud Chains - Ultimate Heavy Duty Lifting Application
    RUD manufactures a range of lifting and lashing applications that guarantee ultimate safety when lifting and moving heavy loads..
  264. Shell's Floating Liquefied Natural Gas facility
    Starting a Revolution..The decision to build a Floating Liquefied Natural Gas facility..
  265. Major construction begins on the Shell's Prelude FLNG project
    October 18th, 2012 - Shell has announced the cutting of the first steel for the Prelude floating liquefied natural gas facility..
  266. Shell lays keel for world's first floating LNG project
    08 May 2013 - In an important step, Shell has laid the keel for Prelude FLNG, the world's first floating liquefied natural gas (FLNG) project..
  267. Shell's Floating LNG facility some images
    Shell Prelude's SUPER chopper, Shell Prelude takes shape, North Sea Atlantic Vessel..
  268. World's largest Engineering and Construction Companies
  269. Trans-Alaska Pipeline System
    The 48-inch trans-Alaska oil pipeline is truly the man-made wonder of the Last Frontier..
  270. What is Water Hammer?
    Water hammer usually occurs after the pump has been switched off, but can also be caused by the rapid opening or closing of a valve..valves
  271. What is Vacuum (FAQ - Pressure)?
    Its definition is not precise but, it is commonly taken to mean pressures below, and often considerably below, atmospheric pressure..
  272. Nord Stream (North Transgas and North European Gas Pipeline)
    Nord Stream is a dual gas pipeline to transport Russian natural gas through the Baltic Sea to Germany..pipe laying baltic sea twin pipeline large steel components very high operating pressures logistics by the numbers sensitive ecosystem pipe laying vessel castoro sei pipe laying vessel castoro dieci pipe laying vessel solitaire solitaire is the largest pipelaying vessel in the world pipelaying processes firing line hyperbaric tie-in skandi arctic dive support vessel nord stream pre-commissioning and pressure testing
  273. Metric and Imperial Conversion Charts
    Length, Pressure, Area, Weight, Volume, Temperature, Right Triangle Calc..
  274. Right-Angled Triangle Calculator
  275. What is Fracking?
    Fracking is a technique for increasing the permeability of rock so that oil, natural gas or geothermal energy can be extracted more easily..
  276. Are you looking for a job..
  277. Dye Penetrant Inspection
    Dye Penetrant Inspection (DPI), also called Liquid Penetrant Inspection (LPI) or Penetrant Testing (PT), is one of the oldest and simplists NDT methods..
  278. Eddy current array (ECA)
    Eddy current array (ECA) is a nondestructive testing technology that provides the ability to electronically drive multiple eddy current coils..
  279. Internal Rotary Inspection System (IRIS)
    IRIS is a technique that can be applied on both ferrous and non- ferrous materials and even on non-conductive materials like plastics..
  280. Magnetic Particle Inspection (MPI)
    Magnetic particle inspection (often abbreviated MT or MPI) is a nondestructive inspection method that provides detection of linear flaws located at or near the surface of ferromagnetic materials..mpi test
    By means of the on-stream inspection (OSI) by means of irradiation testing, a verification of the residual wall thickness..
  282. Positive Material Identification (PMI)
    PMI is one of the more specialised non destructive testing by which the alloy composition of materials can be determined..
  283. Pressure Testing
    Pressure Testing is a non-destructive test performed to ensure the integrity of the pressure shell on new pressure equipment..
  284. Pressure Testing Equipment
    Pressure Gauge, Temperature and pressure recorder receiver, Hydrostatic Test Pumps..
  285. Hydrostatic testing of pressure piping systems in practice
    Hydrostatic testing of pressure piping is a mandatory activity before finalization of any new or modified piping system..
  286. Safe Distance for Pressure Testing
    Calculation of minimum safety distance for pressure testing (LLOYDS Register 96-02) form T-0240 sections 3.3 (fluid) and 4.3 (gas)..
  287. Risks of Pneumatic pressure testing
    Pneumatic pressure testing of piping and vessels at moderate-to-high test pressures or at low test pressures with high volume is more hazardous than..
  288. Radiographic Testing (RT)
    Radiographic Testing (RT or X-ray or Gamma ray) is a non-destructive testing (NDT) method that examines the volume of a specimen..
  289. Ultrasonic Testing (UT)
    UT is a method of characterizing the thickness or internal structure of a test piece through the use of high frequency sound waves..ultrasonic testing ndt
  290. The End of the Oil Age..
    In recent years a lot has changed in terms of oil industry, and alternatives to fossil fuels..
  291. Oil and Gas exploration
    A variety of technologies are employed in the oil and gas industry to identify oil and gas reserves, to access those reserves, and to extract and deliver the products..
  292. Current Crude Oil prices
    West Texas Intermediate (WTI), Brent Blend..
  293. Transport and Storage of Crude Oil and Natural Gas
    Before the refining process can take place, first the crude oil must be transported to a refinery..
  294. Oil and Gas extraction
    A pumpjack (also known as nodding donkey) is the popular name for the aboveground part of a pump that pumping oil from the ground..
  295. What are Fossil Fuels?
    Crude oil, natural gas and coal are fossil fuels..
  296. Proved Natural Gas Reserves
  297. Facts from the Oil Industry
    The standard oil barrel of 42 US gallons is used in the United States as a measure of crude oil and other petroleum products..
  298. Petroleum Refining Processes
    What many people do not realise is that crude oil is also the starting point for many diverse products such as clothes, medical equipment, electronics, vitamin capsules and tyres..
  299. Proved Global Oil Reserves
  300. Piping Fun Funny images
  301. Questions and Answers on wermac
    can ring joint gaskets be reused?..
  302. What are Flange Weld Testers?
    The Flange Weld Tester is used to hydrotest the integrity of new welds where a Weld(ing) Neck or Slip On flange has been added to a pipeline..
  303. In-Line Weld Testing and Isolation
    In-Line Weld Test Tools are commonly used during the maintenance and modification of piping or process equipment, enabling localised pressure testing..
  304. Aluminium Expanding Pipe Stoppers
    Pipe stoppers are used to temporarily seal the end of a pipe or opening for many different testing applications..
  305. Flange Alignment Tools
    Flange alignment tools are mechanical or hydraulic devices used to align or realign flange connections during pipeline construction..
  306. Often used Tools in Piping
  307. Vacuum box testing
    The vacuum box test is a non-destructive examination used to detect weld seam leaks..
  308. Videos of Piping Tools
    Adjustable Wrenches, Centering Head for Piping, Fitter Grips & Fitter Square, Flange Alignment Pins, Hi-Lo Welding Gauge, How a pipe wrench works, How To Bend SS Pipe, How To Cut SS Pipe, Hydraulic Bending Machine, Manually thread a pipe, Steel Pipe Alignment Clamps, Threading machine, Use of a Angle Grinder, Weld Gauge measurements
  309. Piping related articles
  310. Types of Welding Joints
    Different types of welding joints are made to stand up to the needs and forces of each individual application..
  311. Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)
    Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), or manual metal arc welding was first invented in Russia in 1888..
  312. Explosion-Bonding-Cladding-Welding
    Explosion Bonding or Explosion Cladding or Explosion Welding is a technically based industrial welding process..
  313. Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)
    or Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding was first patented in the USA in 1949 for welding aluminium..
  314. Orbital Welding
    The name orbital welding comes of the circular motion of welding tool around the workpiece..
  315. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)
    also known as Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding became an overnight success in the 1940s for joining magnesium and aluminium..
  316. Welding Procedures and Welder Performance Qualification
    A welded construction applies, quality prescriptions concerning design production and use..
  317. Piping Related Abbreviations
  318. BWG Birmingham Wire Gauge
    The Birmingham gauge is a wire gauge system, and is also used to specify thickness or diameter of hypodermic/injection needles and tube products..bwg to mm
  319. Dimensions and weights welded and seamless wrought steel pipes ASME B36.10
    Dimensions NPS 1/8-80, Schedule 5-160..
  320. Dimensions and weights welded and seamless stainless steel pipes ASME B36.19
    Dimensions NPS 1/8-30, Schedule 5s-80s..
  321. Dimensions of Steel Pipes ASME B36.10 and B36.19 suffix (S)
    Dimensions NPS 1/2 to 48, Schedule 5-160..
  322. Dimensions and Weights of Pipes ASTM A53
    Dimensions NPS 1/8-26, Schedule 40-160..flange dimensions
  323. Fiberglass Reinforced Plastics (FRP)
    In recent years, FRP has been widely used in process, water and chemical industries due to their high resistance to corrosion..
  324. Pipes Generic Marking Standards and Requirements
    The ASME B31.3 Code requires random examination of materials and components to ensure conformance to listed specifications and standards..
  325. CRA cladded pipes
    The CRA cladded steel pipe is composed of a conventional carbon steel or low alloy steel pipe and a corrosion-resistant alloy layer..
  326. Jacketed Piping
    In the language of processing systems, jacketed pipes are essentially pipes within pipes..
  327. PTFE lined Pipes and Fittings
    To prevent corrosion e.g. in a pipe system, internal PTFE lining can be applied to steel pipes, elbows, tees, reducers, spacers, valves and other fittings installed in a pipeline..
  328. Definition and Details of Pipe
    Pipe is a hollow tube with round cross section for the conveyance of products..
  329. Nominal Pipe Size (NPS)
    Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) is a North American set of standard sizes for pipes used for high or low pressures and temperatures..xxh vs xxs pipe
  330. Types, Lengths and Ends of Pipes
    Pipe manufacturing refers to how the individual pieces of pipe are made in a pipe mill..
  331. Grades of materials used for Pipes acc. to various ASTM standards
    Frequently used ASTM Grades for Pipes A106-A335-A333-A312..
  332. What is are differences between Pipe and Tube?
    People use the words pipe and tube interchangeably, and they think that both are the same..difference between pipe and tube tube vs pipe difference between tube and pipe pipe vs tube pipe and tube differences
  333. Steel Pipe and Manufacturing Processes
    The advent of rolling mill technology and its development during the first half of the nineteenth century also heralded in the industrial manufacture of tube and pipe..
  334. Pressure and Temperature Ratings of Seamless Pipes
    ASTM A106, ASTM A53, API -5L..
  335. Weights in kg/m of Steel Pipes
    ASME B36.10 and B36.19 suffix (S)..
  336. Types of Cranes
    The crane for lifting heavy loads was invented by the Ancient Greeks in the late 6th century..
  337. In Action Image of the LIEBHERR LR 13000 (Photo 1)
  338. In Action Image of the LIEBHERR LR 13000 (Photo 2)
  339. In Action Image of the LIEBHERR LR 13000 (Photo 3)
  340. Carbon Monoxide and the Workplace
    The primary danger with Carbon Monoxide (CO) is that it cannot be easily detected..
  341. Chevrons Field Guide
  342. Create a Safe and Healthy Workplace
    Whether you work at a business, manage it, or own it, you all have the same goal - you don't want anyone to get hurt on the job..
  343. BP - safety policy states no harm to people and no accidents
  344. Total - The Golden Rules of Occupational Safety
  345. Job Safety Analysis
    Job Safety Analysis (JSA) simply means looking at the work task and considering what is the safest way to complete it..
  346. Safe use of Nitrogen (N)
    Nitrogen is one of the most DANGEROUS GASES found in refineries and chemical plants..
  347. ATmosphere EXplosibles (ATEX)
    The ATEX regulation is a European directive which requires all heads of organizations to fully understand the risks related to certain explosive environments..
  348. What is %LEL / %UEL / PID?
    Lower and Upper Explosive Limits for Flammable Gases and Vapors..methane lel
  349. Lockout Tagout LoTo
    LoTo(To) stands for Lockout Tagout (TryOut) and protects an employee by preventing others from using equipment or the switch on the machine..
  350. What is a Scaffold?
    Scaffolds are commonly used in construction work so workers have a safe, stable work platform when work cannot be done at ground level or on a finished floor..
  351. FingerSaver - Minimize the Risks
    Using the correct safety device should be an essential part of everyday life..
  352. Forklift-Truck - Lifting and Lowering People
    Never allow anyone to be lifted while standing on the forks or on a pallet lifted by the forks!..
    NO! you can't see or smell Nitrogen..
  354. Modification of a scaffold
    Only competent persons who have been trained and are experienced in this kind of work may make modifications to scaffolds!..
  355. Flexible pressurized Hoses prevent Hose whipping
    Flexible pressurized hoses are found on most construction and repair operations..
  356. About Me
  357. Copyright
  358. ANSI B16 or ASME B16 or both?
    Many pro-fessionals, suppliers and manufacturers often talk about ANSI flanges, ANSI fittings etc..
  359. ASME B16.10
    Standard for Face-to-Face and End-to-End Dimensions of Valves..
  360. ASME B16.11
    Standard for Forged Fittings Socket Welding Threaded..
  361. ASME B16.20
    Standard for Metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges Ring-Joint Spiral-Wound and Jacketed..
  362. ASME B16.25
    Standard for Buttwelding Ends..
  363. ASME B16.34
    Standard for Valves Flanged Threaded and Welding Ends..
  364. ASME B16.36
    Standard for Orifice Flanges..
  365. ASME B16.47
    Standard for Large Diameter Steel flanges NPS 26 through NPS 60 Metric/Inch..
  366. ASME B16.48
    Standard for Line Blanks..
  367. ASME B16.5
    Standard for Pipe flanges and flanged Fittings NPS 1/2 through NPS 24 Metric/Inch..
  368. ASME B16.9
    Standard for Factory-Made Wrought Buttwelding Fittings..
  369. American Petroleum Institute (API)
    API is the only national trade association that represents all aspects of America's oil and natural gas industry..
  370. API Valve Standards
    Sizing, Selection, and Installation of Pressure-relieving Devices in Refineries, API Std 520, RP 520, Std 526, Std 527, RP 574, RP 576, Std 594, Std 598, Std 599, Std 600, Std 602, Std 603, Std 607, Std 608, Std 609, Spec 6D, Spec 6FA, Spec 6FC, 6RS, RP 11V6, RP 11V7..api 520, api 520, api 526, api 527, api 574, api 576, api 594, api 598, api 599, api 600, api 602, api 603, api 607, api 608, api 609, api 6D, api 6FA, api 6FC, api 6RS, api 11V6, api 11V7
  371. ASTM A.. or ASME SA..
    The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) have cooperated..
  372. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC)
    The BPVC is an American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) standard that provides rules for the design, fabrication, and inspection of boilers and pressure vessels..
  373. American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
    Founded in 1880 as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, is a non-profit educational and technical organization with more than 120,000 members worldwide..
  374. ASME B31.3 - Process Piping
    Process Piping is the piping that convey fluids under pressure or vacuum within the limits of a Petroleum refinery, Chemical plant etc..
  375. ASME Standards defined on this Website
    ASME B16.10, B16.11, B16.20, B16.21, B16.25, B16.34, B16.36, B16.47, B16.48, B16.49 and so on..
  376. ASTM Paint Standards and Related Coating Standards
    ASTM's paint and related coating standards are instrumental in specifying and evaluating the physical and chemical properties of various paints and coatings..
  377. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
    Organized in 1898, ASTM International is one of the world's largest international standards developing organizations..
  378. ASTM standards for steel pipes, tubes and fittings
    This group of ASTM standard specifications covers various types of steel pipes, tubes and fittings for high-temperature service..
  379. ASTM standards for steel castings and forgings
    This group of ASTM specifications covers standard properties of steel and iron castings and forgings for Valves, flanges, fittings, and other pressure containing parts..
  380. ASTM standards for steel plate, sheet, strip and wire
    This group of ASTM standards covers steel plates, sheets and strips used in various applications..
  381. Overview ASTM standards defined on this website
    ASTM A53, A105, A106, A182, A193, A194, A216, A217, A234 ans so on..
  382. ASTM A53
    Standard specification for pipe, steel, black and hot-dipped, zinc-coated, welded and seamless..
  383. ASTM A105
    Standard specification for carbon steel forgings for piping applications..
  384. ASTM A106
    Standard specification for seamless carbon steel pipe for high-temperature service..
  385. ASTM A182
    Standard specification for forged or rolled alloy and stainless steel pipe flanges, forged fittings, and valves and parts for high-temperature service..
  386. ASTM A193
    standard specification for alloy-steel and stainless steel bolting materials for high temperature or high pressure service and other special purpose applications..
  387. ASTM A194
    standard specification for carbon and alloy steel nuts for bolts for high pressure or high temperature service, or both..
  388. ASTM A216
    Standard specification for steel castings, carbon, suitable for fusion welding, for high-temperature service..
  389. ASTM A217
    Standard specification for steel castings, martensitic stainless and alloy, for pressure-containing parts, suitable for high-temperature service..
  390. ASTM A234
    Standard specification for piping fittings of wrought carbon steel and alloy steel for moderate and high temperature service..
  391. ASTM A312
    standard specification for seamless, welded, and heavily cold worked austenitic stainless steel pipes..
  392. ASTM A320
    Standard specification for alloy-steel and stainless steel bolting materials for low-temperature service..
  393. ASTM A333
    Standard specification for seamless and welded steel pipe for low-temperature service..
  394. ASTM A335
    Standard specification for seamless ferritic alloy-steel pipe for high-temperature service..
  395. ASTM A350
    Standard specification for carbon and low-alloy steel forgings, requiring notch toughness testing for piping components..
  396. ASTM A351
    Standard specification for castings, austenitic, for pressure-containing parts..
  397. ASTM A352
    Standard specification for steel castings, ferritic and martensitic, for pressure-containing parts, suitable for low-temperature service..
  398. ASTM A403
    Standard specification for wrought austenitic stainless steel piping fittings..
  399. ASTM A420
    Standard specification for piping fittings of wrought carbon steel and alloy steel for low-temperature service..
  400. ASTM A530
    Standard specification for general requirements for specialized carbon and alloy steel pipe..
  401. Manufacturers Standardization Society (MSS)
    Officially founded in 1924, the Manufacturers Standardization Society (MSS) of the Valve and Fittings Industry is a non-profit technical association..
  402. Pressure Equipment Directive (PED)
    The PED is similar to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code in that it provides requirements for certain pressure equipment..
  403. Reinforced Branch Connection Set-On type
    With large pipe dimensions, it is customary, to form a TEE intersection by cutting a hole in the straight run (the header)..
  404. G-Range Pipe Connectors in High Pressure Applications
    The G-Range pipe connection offers significant benefits for use in industrial plant in a wide variety of applications..
  405. What is Cold Cutting?
    Cold cutting is a procedure for cutting material without using heat. With no sparks produced, the process is the safest method for cutting structures in hazardous environments..
  406. Compression Fittings
    Compression fittings are one of the most common and versatile methods of joining small diameter metal or hard plastic tubing..
  407. What is a Coriolis Flow Meter and how does it work?
    This type of flowmeter is based on the so-called Coriolis effect, named after the discoverer of this phenomenon, Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis..
  408. Dimensions of Restriction Orifice Plates for ASME B16.5 RF Flangesorifice plate
  409. Dimensions Square Edge Flow Metering Orifice Plates for ASME B16.36 RF Orifice Flangesorifice plate
  410. Expansion Joints (Bellows) in Piping Systems
    Expansion joints are used in piping systems to absorb thermal expansion or terminal movement where the use of expansion loops is undesirable or impractical..
  411. Pipe Flow Measurement..Flow Nozzles
    In many of today's industrial processes, it is essential to measure accurately the rate of fluid flow within a system as a whole or in part..
  412. Cutter Sizes Hot Tapping through Gate Valves
    The table is for reference only. If you plan to make a Hot Tap, let the supplier confirm the maximum bore of the valve..
  413. Hinged Metal Expansion Joints
    Hinges are mounted to limit the expansion joint to absorb movements in only one plane in the hinged metal expansion joints..
  414. Hot Bolting
    Single stud replacement is the procedure defined in the ASME standard PCC-1..
  415. Hot Tapping and Line Stopping
    Hot Taps or Hot Tapping is the ability to safely tie into a pressurized system, by drilling or cutting, while it is on stream and under pressure..
  416. Image presentation about Hot Tapping
  417. Image presentation about Line Stopping
  418. Level Measurement by Level Indicators (Gauges)
    Level indicators are devices used in the measurement of level of fluids at various industrial applications..
  419. Lokring Technology
    Lokring is a mechanical method for producing permanent weld equivalent pipe connections, eliminating the need for hotwork and the associated health and safety issues..
  420. Pipe Flow Measurement.. Orifice Plates
    Orifice plates are still the most widely used type of flowmeter in the world today..
  421. Orifice Plates for Flow Measurement and Flow Restriction
    Orifice plates are one of the most popular devices for the measurement and control of fluid flow..
  422. What is Oxygen cutting?
    Oxygen cutting is a technology with a long tradition that is constantly being improved and developed..
  423. Pipeline Pigging
    Pipeline Pigging refers to the practice of using devices or implements known as 'pigs' to perform various cleaning, clearing, maintenance, inspection..
  424. Pipe and Tube Bending
    Tube bending methods are mainly classified into two types - hot tube bending and cold tube bending..
  425. Pipe line freezing
    Pipe line freezing is a temporary method of insulating piping systems in which a freeze plug is made in the piping system so that the contents do not have to be drained..
  426. Methods of Pipeline repair and other Equipment
    There are several methods that may be used to remediate pipeline defects and anomalous conditions that can present a potential threat to the integrity of the pipeline..
  427. Repairs of Pipelines by Welding
    All repair methods are performed by welding (hot work), usually requires that the equipment in question be taken out of service and delivered completely depressurized and clean..
  428. Repairs of Pipelines by Composite Sleeves / Composite Wraps
    Composite sleeves or full composite wraps are the latest innovation in pipeline defect repair where leakage or spillage has not started..
  429. What is Plasma Cutting?
    Plasma cutting was developed at the end of the 1950s for cutting high-alloy steels and aluminum..
  430. Cam Lock and Chicago Couplings
    Cam Lock Fittings allow for quick, secure connections of hoses to tanks or other hoses. Universal style couplings, also known as 'Chicago Couplings', are most commonly used on hose lines connecting pneumatic tools to a compressed air source..
  431. Liquid Samplers in the chemistry and petrochemistry industry
    One of the major players in sample systems is Dopak..
  432. Function of a Strainer
    Strainers are important components of piping systems to protect equipment from potential damage due to dirt and other particles that may be carried by the process fluid..
  433. Temperature Measurement by Thermowell
    A thermowell is a pressure tight receptacle designed to accept a temperature sensing element and provide a means to insert that element into a vessel or pipe..
  434. Pipe Flow Measurement.. Venturi Flow Meter
    Pipe flow measurement is often done with a differential pressure flow meter like the orifice, flow nozzle, and ventruri meter..
  435. Victaulic Pipe Joining Systems
    Victaulic provides products for Fire Protection, Data Centers, Shipbuilding, Commercial Buildings, Mining, BioFuels, and Industrial Manufacturing..
  436. Vortex flow meter
    Vortex flow meters are transducers that determine the flow rate of a substance in a pipe section by analyzing a vortex line (von Karman vortex)..
  437. Steam.. The energy fluid
    Steam has come a long way from its traditional associations with locomotives and the Industrial Revolution..
  438. The Boiler House - Basic overview of a steam system
    The boiler is the heart of the steam system. The typical modern packaged boiler is powered by a burner which sends heat into the boiler tubes..
  439. What is Condensate?
    Steam that has been condensed back into water by either raising its pressure or lowering its temperature..
  440. What is Steam?
    A better understanding of the properties of steam may be achieved by understanding the general molecular and atomic structure of matter, and applying this knowledge to ice, water and steam..
  441. What are Steam Traps?
    The duty of a steam trap is to discharge condensate, air and other incondensable gases from a steam system while not permitting the escape of live steam..
  442. Types of Steam Traps
    Thermostatic traps operate in response to the surrounding steam temperature..
  443. Mechanical Steam Traps
    Mechanical steam traps rely on the difference in density between steam and condensate in order to operate..
  444. Thermodynamic Steam Traps
    Thermodynamic steam traps have a unique operating principle which relies on the dynamics of water and flash steam..
  445. Steam distribution system
    An efficient steam distribution system is essential if steam of the right quality and pressure is to be supplied, in the right quantity, to the steam using equipment..
  446. Steam System Design
    Pipe sizing is a crucial aspect of steam system design. This page offers detailed advice on standards, schedules, materials and sizing for various saturated and superheated steam duties..
  447. Steam System Expansion
    Any steam system must be fully supported, able to expand during operation and sufficiently flexible to allow movement as a result..
  448. Properties for Saturated Steam
    The page provides a link to Spirax Sarco where you can calculate the properties of Saturated Steam..
  449. Orifice Plate Steam Traps
    The big difference with all other types of steam traps is that orifice plate steam traps have no moving parts..
  450. Dimensions of Angle steel Equal NEN-EN 10025-1/2angle bar weight l angle sizes
  451. Dimensions of Angle steel Unequal NEN-EN 10025-1/2angle bar weight l angle sizes
  452. Dimensions of Flat steel NEN-EN 10025-1/2
  453. Dimensions of Steel Beams HEA NEN-EN 10025-1/2
  454. Dimensions of Steel Beams HEB NEN-EN 10025-1/2
  455. Dimensions of Steel Beams HEM NEN-EN 10025-1/2
  456. Dimensions of Steel Beams IPE NEN-EN 10025-1/2
  457. Dimensions Round and Square NEN-EN 10025-1/2
  458. Dimensions of Tee steel Equal NEN-EN 10025-1/2
  459. Dimensions of Steel Beams UNP NEN-EN 10025-1/2
  460. Floor gratings
    Floor gratings are often seen as a superior alternative to flat surfaces for flooring, walkways, raised platforms and various other industrial applications..
  461. Green Steel
    Green steel is the manufacturing of steel without the use of fossil fuels..
  462. Pipe Racks
    PIPE RACKS OR PIPE BRIDGES are structures designed and built specifically to support multiple pipes where adequate structure is not available..
  463. Standard Pipe Supports
    Pipe supports and hangers are devices which transfer the loads from the pipe or the structural attachment to the supporting structure or equipment..
  464. Standard parts of Pipe Supports
    On this page are the most common standard pipe supports specified, but there are many more standards available. MSS SP-58 for instance has more then 60 standard Support Types..
  465. MAXimum span between Pipe Supports
    The locations of piping supports are dependent upon four factors.. pipe size, piping configuration, locations of valves and fittings, and the structure available for support..
  466. Dynamic Spring Supports
    There are different types of dynamic or flexible support. Each has its own purpose. Dynamic supports support the pipe in vibrations, seismic, winds and even take loads in working conditions..
  467. Steel making
    To produce steel, facilities use one of two processes.. the basic oxygen furnace (BOF) or the electric arc furnace (EAF)..
  468. What is Steel?
    In 1786 Berthollet, Monge and Vandermonde, three French scientists, precisely defined the nature of the Iron/Cast Iron/Steel relationship and the role of carbon in the preparation and characteristics of these three materials..
  469. The purpose of a bypass valve
    A bypass valve is mounted in a so-called bypass loop that allows an instrument, control valves or other device to be bypassed..
  470. Face to Face Dimensions Dual Plate Double-flanged Check Valves
    API Std 594 Class 150 to 2500 Type A..
  471. Face to Face Dimensions Dual Plate Lug Check Valves
    API Std 594 Class 150 to 2500 Type A..
  472. Face to Face Dimensions Dual Plate Wafer Check Valves
    API Std 594 Class 150 to 2500 Type A..
  473. Face to Face dimensions Single Plate Wafer Check Valves
    API Std 594 Class 150 to 2500 Type A..
  474. Face to Face dimensions of flanged valves ASME B16.10
  475. Leak testing of Valves
    API standard 598, MSS standard MSS-SP-61, ANSI standard FCI 70-2, ISO standard 5208..
  476. What is a Needle Valve Manifold?
    Needle valve manifolds integrate several valves into a common, single housing..
  477. Valve Actuators
    Valve actuators are selected based upon a number of factors including torque necessary to operate the valve and the need for automatic actuation..valves
  478. ARV or ARC valves
    ARC valve is the abbreviation for Automatic Recirculation Control valves, and ARC is a registered name of Yarway. The function of this valve is the same as that of a AR valve..
  479. Types of Ball valves
    A Ball valve is a quarter-turn rotational motion valve that uses a ball-shaped disk to stop or start flow..
  480. Bellow Sealed Valves
    There are two main types of bellow.. the Forged Bellow and the Welded Bellow. Formed-type bellows are made from rolling a flat sheet (thin wall foil) into a tube which is then longitudinally fusion welded..stuffing box
  481. Breather valves
    Breather Valves, also known as direct acting Pressure/Vacuum Relief Valves, are special types of Relief Valves which are specifically designed for tank protection..
  482. Butterfly valves
    A Butterfly valve is a quarter-turn rotational motion valve, that is used to stop, regulate, and start flow..stuffing box bf valve
  483. What are Car Seals?
    Car seals are a simple device used to lock or 'seal' a valve in the open or closed position to prevent unauthorized operation of the valve..valves
  484. ASTM Valves Casting Materials
    ASTM A216 Grade WCB, ASTM A352 Grade LCB, ASTM A487 Grade CA6NM and so on..
  485. Check valves
    Check valves are automatic valves that open with forward flow and close with reverse flow..
  486. Control valves
    The control valve manipulates a flowing fluid, such as gas, steam, water, or chemical compounds, to compensate for the load disturbance and keep the regulated process variable as close as possible to the desired set point..
  487. What are Cryogenic Valves?
    Cryogenic valves are constructed to store such gases safely and also work great during transportation due to their ability to function efficiently in pressure settings as high as 52 bar (750 psi) and temperature as low as -196°C (-320°F)..
  488. Double Block and Bleed
    The primary function of a double block and bleed system is for isolation and the secondary function is for intervention..block and bleed valve
  489. True meaning of Double Block and Bleed
    On March 4 2010 Garza, Mechanical Lead - Static Equipment Engineering Group at ExxonMobil Development Company, gave a presentation at the VMA Technical Seminar in San Antonio entitled 'Isolation Philosophies' in which he asserted that many people take the term 'Double Block and Bleed' (DBB)..block and bleed valve
  490. Diaphragm Valves
    Diaphragm valves are used on shut-off and throttling service for liquids, slurries and vacuum/gas, and it is a quick opening valve..
  491. Diverter Valves
    Divider valves direct bulk material to different destinations as part of a pneumatic conveying system with dilute or dense phase..
  492. Gate Valves
    Gate valves are primarily designed to start or stop flow, and when a straight-line flow of fluid and minimum flow restriction are needed. In service, these valves generally are either fully open or fully closed..
  493. Valves Guide - What are Valves?
    Valves are mechanical devices that controls the flow and pressure within a system or process. They are essential components of a piping system that conveys liquids, gases, vapors, slurries etc..yoke nut stuffing box bonnet body stem handwheel gland follover pakking wedge back ring trim disk seats linear motion rotary motion quarter motion actuator screw non rising stem rising stem inside outside
  494. Trim of Valves API Trim Numbers
    The removable and replaceable valve internal parts that come in contact with the flow medium are collectively termed as Valve trim..
  495. Globe Valves
    A Globe valve is a linear motion valve and are primarily designed to stop, start and regulate flow..
  496. Valve Interlock System
    A valve interlock is a trapped key lock assembly which locks the valve in one or two positions - open and/or closed - with one key trapped within the lock assembly and one key free..valves
  497. Needle valves
    Needle Valves are used to make relatively fine adjustments in the amount of fluid flow..
  498. ORBiT valves
    Every ORBIT valve incorporates a proven tilt and turn operation that eliminates seal rubbing, which is the primary cause of valve failure..
  499. Pinch valves
    The pinch valve is a unique type of valve with a distinct construction that is well-known for its excellent wear and corrosion resistance..
  500. Plug Valves
    A Plug Valve is a quarter-turn rotational motion Valve that use a tapered or cylindrical plug to stop or start flow..
  501. Pressure Relief valves
    A pressure Relief Valve (PRV) is a safety device designed to protect a pressurized vessel or system during an overpressure event..pressure safety valve prv valve
  502. Pressure Seal valves
    Pressure seal construction is adopted for Valves for high pressure service, typically in excess of above 170 bar..
  503. Rupture Disk
    A rupture disk is a device designed to function by the bursting of a pressure-retaining disk..
  504. Solenoid valves
    A solenoid valve, otherwise known as an electrically-operated valve is an automatic valve which serves the purpose of removing the need for an engineer to operate a valve manually..
  505. Glossary of Valve Terms
    Actuator, Angle Valves, Backseat, Blow Down Valve, Belleville Spring, Bolted Bonnet, Bore (or Port), Bubble-Tight Shut-Off, Gland Plate, Lever, Non-Rising Stem, Rising Stem, Seat, Stuffing Box, Trim, Trunnion, Yoke..stuffing box
  506. Horse Whisperer
    If there are Horse Whisperers, there must also a Valve Whisperer, or not..valves
  507. Weights of Check valves
    NB! Use tables as a guidance only, weights may vary from different manufactures..
  508. Weights of Gate valves
    NB! Use tables as a guidance only, weights may vary from different manufactures..
  509. Weights of Globe valves
    NB! Use tables as a guidance only, weights may vary from different manufactures..
  510. Piping related YouTube videos