Piping Related Abbreviations S-X


SAW is an abbreviation of Sub-merged Arc Welding.
Submerged Arc Welding is a high quality, very high deposition rate welding process.
SAW uses heat generated by an arc formed when an electric current passes between a welding wire and the workpiece. The tip of the welding wire, the arc, and the weld joint are covered by a layer of granular flux. The heat generated by the arc melts the wire, the base metal and the flux. The flux shields the molten pool from atmospheric contamination, cleans impurities from the weld metal, and shapes the weld bead. Depending on the design of the flux, it can also add alloying elements to the weld metal to alter the chemical and mechanical properties of the wel.


SCH is an abbreviation of SCHedule, and in piping terms this indicates the wall thickness of a pipe.


SMAW is an abbreviation of Shielded Metal Arc Welding.
Shielded Metal Arc Welding is frequently referred to as stick or covered electrode welding. Stick welding is among the most widely used welding processes.


SMLS is an abbreviation of Seamless pipe or fitting.


SR is an abbreviation of Short Radius Elbow.
Elbows are split into two groups which define the distance over which they change direction; the center line of one end to the opposite face. This is known as the "center to face" distance and is equivalent to the radius through which the elbow is bent. The center to face distance for a Short Radius elbow is even to nominal pipe size, while the center to face distance for a Long Radius elbow abbreviated LR always is 1.1/2 x Nominal Pipe Size (1.1/2D).


SST is an abbreviation of Stainless STeel.
Stainless is a term coined early in the development of these steels for cutlery applications. It was adopted as a generic name for these steels and now covers a wide range of steel types and grades for corrosion or oxidation resistant applications.
Stainless steel contains a maximum of 1.2% carbon, a minimum of 10.5% chromium and other alloying elements. The presence of chromium confers on stainless steel its principal quality.. its corrosion resistance.
The alloying elements, depending on their percentages, give stainless steels their physical, chemical and mechanical properties. The presence of alloying elements is the starting point for obtaining the desired properties, various production processes facilitating this. The carbon and iron steel base, together with the addition of various alloying elements, provide the balance of each grade and dertermine which stainless "family" it belongs.
The most frequently used alloying elements are.. nickel, molybdenum, titanium, niobium, manganese, nitrogen, copper, silicon, aluminium and vanadium.


SW is an abbreviation of Socket Weld(ing).
A Socket Weld is a pipe attachment detail in which a pipe is inserted into a recessed area of a valve, fitting or flange. Socket Weld fittings are mainly used for small pipe diameters (Small Bore Piping); generally for piping whose nominal diameter is NPS 2 or smaller. To join pipe to valves and fittings or to other sections of pipe, fillet-type seal welds be used.


TBE is an abbreviation of Threaded Both Ends.
Treaded Both Ends means that both ends of e.g. a pipe nipple are threaded.
TOE / POE = Treaded One End / Plain One End
TOE / BOE = Treaded One End / Beveled One End
POE / BOE = Plain One End / Beveled One End
BBE = Beveled Both Ends
PBE = Plain Both Ends


TIG is an abbreviation of Tungsten Inert Gas.
Tungsten Inert Gas welding also known as GTAW is a process that produces an electric arc maintained between a nonconsumable tungsten electrode and the part to be welded. The heat-affected zone, the molten metal and the tungsten electrode are all shielded from atmospheric contamination by a blanket of inert gas fed through the GTAW torch. Inert gas (usually Argon) is inactive or deficient in active chemical properties. The shielding gas serves to blanket the weld and exclude the active properties in the surrounding air. Inert gases such as Argon and Helium do not chemically react or combine with other gases. They pose no odor and are transparent, permitting the the welder maximum visibility of the arc.


ToFD is an abbreviation of Time of Flight Diffraction.
Time-of-Flight Diffraction Ultrasonic Testing is among the most modern testing methods for the detection of imperfections and defects in materials. Conventional Ultrasonic Testing uses sound reflection. ToFD testing measures the time-of-flight of an ultrasonic pulse to determine the position of a reflector. The application of this method is fast and extremely accurate. This has resulted in an increasing popularity over the last few years.


WCB is an abbreviation of Wrough Carbon gradeB.
WCB is covered by ASTM A216 standard, which specification covers carbon steel castings for valves, fittings, flanges and other pressure-containing parts for high temperature service and the quality required for assembly with other castings or wrought steel parts by fusion welding. These grades are all "cast" grades meaning they are made through "casting" which is a manufacturing process where a liquid material is poured into a mold and allowed to harden.


TOS is an abbreviation of Top Of Steel.


WPQ is an abbreviation of Welder Performance Qualification.
The Welder Performance Qualification document is required by all codes for all welders. It details and summarizes the following information..

Indicates the WPS referenced during the qualification test Identifies the welder by name and/or clock number Lists what the essential parameters were during this test Reports the results of the required qualification tests Specifies qualified limits for welder

For most codes there is a time limit associated with the welder qualification test. However, the American Welding Society provides an unlimited qualification period if certain conditions are met. As with the WPS and WPQR, each code has a recommended format.


WPS is an abbreviation of Welding Procedure Specification.
The Welding Procedure Specification is a required document for all code welding. Your customer either directly or indirectly specifies to what code your company must qualify. The WPS outlines all of the parameters required to perform your welding operation.
In short the WPS is the recipe for your welding operation. It describes the welding process or processes used, the base materials used, the joint design and geometry, gases and flow rates, welding position and includes all of the process conditions and variables. Each code has a recommended format.


WT is an abbreviation of Wall Thickness.
The Wall Thickness in piping terms is defined as schedule (SCH or S).


XXS is an abbreviation of EXtra EXtra Strong.

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