About the American Society for Testing and Materials
ASTM

ASTM A320

Standard Specification for Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting Materials for Low-Temperature Service

1. Scope
1.1 This specification covers alloy steel bolting materials for pressure vessels, Valves, flanges, and fittings for low-temperature service. The term "bolting material" as used in this specification covers rolled, forged, or strain hardened bars, bolts, screws, studs, and Stud Bolts. The bars shall be hot-wrought. The material may be further processed by centerless grinding or by cold drawing. Austenitic stainless steel may be solution annealed or annealed and strain-hardened. When strain hardened austenitic stainless steel is ordered, the purchaser should take special care to ensure that Appendix X1 is thoroughly understood.
1.2 Several grades are covered, including both ferritic and austenitic steels designated L7, B8, etc. Selection will depend on design, service conditions, mechanical properties, and low-temperature characteristics. The mechanical requirements of Table 1 indicate the diameters for which the minimum mechanical properties apply to the various grades and classes, and Table 2 stipulates the requirements for Charpy impact energy absorption. The manufacturer should determine that the material can conform to these requirements before parts are manufactured. For example, when Grade L43 is specified to meet the Table 2 impact energy values at -150 °F [-101 °C], additional restrictions (such as procuring a steel with lower P and S contents than might normally be supplied) in the chemical composition for AISI 4340 are likely to be required.
Note 1. The committee formulating this specification has included several grades of material that have been rather extensively used for the present purpose. Other compositions will be considered for inclusion by the committee from time to time as the need becomes apparent. Users should note that hardenability of some of the grades mentioned may restrict the maximum size at which the required mechanical properties are obtainable.
1.3 Nuts for use with this bolting material are covered in Section 10 and the nut material shall be impact tested.
1.4 Supplementary Requirements (S1, S2, and S3) of an optional nature are provided. They shall apply only when specified in the inquiry, contract and order.
1.5 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard. Unless the order specifies the applicable "M" specification designation (SI units), the material shall be furnished to inch-pound units.
1.6 The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI units are to be regarded separately as standard. Within the text, the SI units are shown in brackets. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents; therefore, each system must be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in nonconformance with the specification.

2. Referenced Documents
ASTM Standards
A194/A194M Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts for Bolts for High Pressure or High Temperature Service, or Both
A370 Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products
A962/A962M Specification for Common Requirements for Steel Fasteners or Fastener Materials, or Both, Intended for Use at Any Temperature from Cryogenic to the Creep Range
E566 Practice for Electromagnetic (Eddy-Current) Sorting of Ferrous Metals
F436 Specification for Hardened Steel Washers
F606 Test Methods for Determining the Mechanical Properties of Externally and Internally Threaded Fasteners, Washers, Direct Tension Indicators, and Rivets

ASME Standards
B18.22 Plain Washers

Reference: ASTM

Top of Page